Indications of Dextrose 25%
Dextrose 25% is administered in the treatment of carbohydrate and fluid depletions. It is mainly used to replace water deficiency and should be given alone when there is no significant loss of electrolytes. Water depletion (dehydration) tends to occur when these losses are not matched by a comparable intake ... Read moreDextrose 25% is administered in the treatment of carbohydrate and fluid depletions. It is mainly used to replace water deficiency and should be given alone when there is no significant loss of electrolytes. Water depletion (dehydration) tends to occur when these losses are not matched by a comparable intake, as for example may occur in coma or dysphagia or in the aged person who may not drink water in sufficient amount on their own initiative. It provides a readily metabolizable nutrient. One litre of 5% solution provides about 170 calories. Glucose solutions are also given in regimens with calcium bicarbonate, and insulin for the emergency management of hyperkalaemia. They are also given, after correction of hyperglycaemia, during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, when they must be accompanied by continuing insulin infusion. Dextrose 25% also may act as a suitable vehicle for the slow intravenous infusion of numerous drugs.
Intravenous fluid preparations, Parenteral nutritional preparations
Dextrose 25% is a monosaccharide that is used as a source of calories and water for hydration. It helps to reduce loss of body protein and nitrogen. It also promotes glycogen deposition in the liver. When used with insulin, it stimulates the uptake of potassium by cells, especially in muscle tissue, thus lowering serum potassium levels.
Dosage of Dextrose 25%
5% Dextrose 25% solution: The dose of Dextrose 25% infusion is variable. It is dependent on individual patient requirements. For 5% Dextrose 25% solution, the dose frequently ranges from 500 to 1000 ml. The maximum rate of infusion that will not cause glycosuria is 0.5 g/kg/hour. About 95% is retained when the rate is 0.8 g/kg/hr. the maximum rate of glucose utilization is about 800 mg per kg body weight per hour.10% Dextrose 25% solution: Dose is variable. It depends on the clinical condition, age and body surface area of the patients and the judgment of the physician. Ordinarily, normal circulation is restored by infusing 20-30 ml/kg as rapidly as possible. The laboratory findings should be available by this time so that the physician can proceed more slowly with logically planned subsequent fluid therapy. 25% Dextrose 25% solution: The volume and rate of infusion of Dextrose 25% solution will depend upon the requirements of the individual patient and the judgment of the physician. The maximum rate at which Dextrose 25% can be infused without producing glycosuria is 0.5 g/kg/hr. The usual recommended flow rate for adult is 10-35 drops per minute infused intravenously. It should not be administered by SC or IM route. 25% Dextrose 25% solution should be infused through the largest available peripheral vein.Oral powder:
Adult: 10-20 gm as single dose; may repeat in 10 min if needed.
Child: >2 yr: 10-20 gm as single dose; may repeat in 10 min if needed.
Administration of Dextrose 25%
Check infusion set and infusion solution prior to use.
Pull moderately to tear off the protective cover of the Eurocap.
Hold lightly the Eurocap but not the bottle body.
Open the flow regulator fully and hold the giving set on the top white area, but not the memorane venting region.
Insert the spike of the administration set to the Eurocap and fit the connector of the administration set firmly to the needle.
Gradually allow the fluid to flow down to the needletip and close.
Remove the protective cover of the needle.
Locate the venpuncture site and clean the site with an antiseptic solution, and then insert the needle.
Securely tape the puncture site.
Securely tape the wings and tubing
Start infusion while adjusting drip speed.
Interaction of Dextrose 25%
There is no drug drug interaction and none well documented.
Do not take this medicine and tell your doctor if: You should not use this medication if you are allergic to Dextrose 25%. Before using Dextrose 25% 5% in water, tell your doctor if you have diabetes, breathing problems, an electrolyte imbalance, kidney or liver disease, a food or drug allergy, or if you receive regular blood transfusions.
Side Effects of Dextrose 25%
severe burning, pain, or swelling around the IV needle;
warmth, redness, oozing, or bleeding where the IV was placed;
fever, ongoing cough;
high blood sugar, headache, trouble concentrating, memory problems, weakness, feeling unsteady, hallucinations, fainting, seizure, shallow breathing or breathing that stops;
low potassium or anxiety, sweating, pale skin, severe shortness of breath, wheezing, pain, fast or uneven heart rate.
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks
Precautions & Warnings
Serum glucose concentration should be carefully monitored. Concurrent use of insulin may be needed in case of diabetic patients. Dextrose 25% solution should not be mixed with whole blood as haemolysis and clumping may occur. Infusion of fluid should be immediately discontinued if rigor arises for any reasons during the process. Do not use if the solution is cloudy, contains particles, or after expiry date.Take special care with Dextrose 25%. Check with your doctor before taking this medicine if: You should not use this medication if you are allergic to Dextrose 25%.To make sure you can safely use Dextrose 25% 5% in water, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:
an electrolyte imbalance (such as low levels of potassium in your blood);
kidney or liver disease;
any allergy to foods or medicines; or
if you receive regular blood transfusions.
Overdose Effects of Dextrose 25%
Reevaluate patient's condition and institute appropriate symptomatic treatment.
Keep below 30°C temperature, away from light & moisture. Keep out of the reach of children.
Intravenous fluid preparations
Mode Of Action
Dextrose 25% is a form of glucose (sugar). Dextrose 25% 5% in water is injected into a vein through an IV to replace lost fluids and provide carbohydrates to the body. Dextrose 25% 5% in water is used to treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), insulin shock, or dehydration (fluid loss). Dextrose 25% 5% in water is also given for nutritional support to patients who are unable to eat because of illness, injury, or other medical condition.
FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether Dextrose 25% 5% in water will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medication. It is not known whether Dextrose 25% 5% in water passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.